Packaged foods sold in the United States would display calorie counts more prominently and include the amount of added sugar under a proposal to significantly update nutritional labels for the first time in 20 years, as health officials seek to reduce obesity and combat related diseases such as diabetes.
The Food and Drug Administration said Thursday its proposal would ensure that the amount of calories listed per serving reflects the portions that people typically eat. That change may result in per-serving calorie counts doubling for some foods like ice cream.
First lady Michelle Obama, who has used her White House position to launch the Let's Move campaign to fight childhood obesity, announced the proposal alongside the FDA.
The principle behind the update is "very simple," she said in a statement. "You as a parent and a consumer should be able to walk into your local grocery store, pick up an item off the shelf and be able to tell whether it's good for your family."
While the FDA already requires companies to list the amount of sugar in a product, under the proposal, they would also be required to list the amount of added sugar. Natural sugar is contained in fruits, for example. Added sugar includes corn syrup and concentrated juice as well as white and brown sugar.
In addition, the labeling on vitamin content would change, with companies required to list the amount of potassium and vitamin D. Currently, companies are required to list the amounts of vitamin A and vitamin C, but the FDA said deficiencies in vitamin D and potassium are more likely.
Dr. David Kessler, who was commissioner of the FDA when the original labels were created, said the proposed update is a "critically important" advance in public health.
"The food label is not just about giving consumers information but about creating incentives for the industry to create healthier products," he said in an interview, according to Reuters. "No company wants their product to look bad on the food label."
The FDA estimated that the cost to industry of updating the labels would be about $2 billion, while the benefit to consumers is estimated at $20 billion to $30 billion.
The updates would take three years or so to go into effect. First there will be a 90-day public comment period, after which the FDA will draw up final rules. After that, companies would have two years to comply with the regulations.
"It is critical that any changes are based on the most current and reliable science," Pamela Bailey, president and chief executive of the Grocery Manufacturers Association, said in a statement. "Equally as important is ensuring that any changes ultimately serve to inform and not confuse consumers."
The trade group represents food, beverage and consumer products companies.
In addition to having calorie counts displayed in a larger font, the labels may give consumers something of a wake-up call with the proposed changes in per-serving calorie counts.
By law, serving sizes must reflect the amount consumers typically consume, yet serving sizes listed on many packaged goods often differ wildly from what people actually eat. A serving of ice cream, for example, is currently listed as half a cup. Yet few people stop at half a cup.
Under the FDA's proposal, a serving of ice cream would be a cup, doubling the calorie count and potentially giving consumers pause as they survey their options.
By contrast, the serving size for yogurt would fall from the current level of eight ounces to the more commonly consumed six ounces, the FDA said.
In the case of packages that can be consumed in multiple sittings, such as family-size bags of potato chips, manufacturers would have to provide two labels, one to show the nutritional information per serving and the other to provide the per package information.
FDA Commissioner Margaret Hamburg said the proposed label change reflects what "has been learned about the connection between what we eat and the development of serious chronic diseases impacting millions of Americans."