At Turkey's request, NATO's governing body called an emergency meeting.
Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu insisted his country has the right to take "all kinds of measures" against border violations and called on the international community to work toward "extinguishing the fire that is burning in Syria."
Turkey said the Russian Su-24 jet ignored several warnings that it was nearing, then intruding into Turkish airspace. Russia insisted the plane stayed over Syria, where it was supporting ground action against Syrian rebels. A Turkish military statement said the plane entered Turkish airspace over the town of Yayladagi, in Hatay province. It said the plane was warned 10 times in five minutes.
But Russia insisted the plane stayed on the Syrian side of the border, where it was supporting ground action by Syrian government troops against rebels.
"We will never tolerate such atrocities as happened today, and we hope that the international community will find the strength to join forces and fight this evil," Putin said.
A U.S. official told Al Jazeera that the penetration of Turkish airspace by the Russian jet lasted "only a matter of seconds" as it crossed a less-than-2-mile-wide section of Turkey for 20 seconds.
While the U.S. and Russia have both vowed to defeat ISIL, the U.S. remains skeptical of Putin's motivations in Syria, given his long-standing support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, whose departure has been a U.S. goal for years.
U.S. President Barack Obama on Tuesday said, "Turkey, like every country, has a right to defend its territory and airspace," adding that while details of what exactly happened are still not certain, all sides must "take measures to discourage any kind of escalation."
Video footage of the incident showed a warplane on fire before crashing on a hill and two crewmembers apparently parachuting down.
The two Russian crewmembers tried to land in government-held areas after they ejected but came under fire from a Syrian rebel group.
Jahed Ahmad, a spokesman the 10th Coast Division, a Syrian rebel group that includes local Turkmen fighters, said its forces fired at the Russian pilots as they descended, killing one. The Russian Defense Ministry later said, based on preliminary information, that one of its pilots was killed in the air by ground fire after the crew ejected.
But according to a statement from local Turkmen fighters to Reuters, both pilots were killed. "Both of the pilots were retrieved dead. Our comrades opened fire into the air, and they died in the air," Alpaslan Celik, a deputy commander in a Syrian Turkmen brigade said near the Syrian village of Yamadi as he held what he said was a piece of a pilot's parachute.
Later Tuesday, Russia's military said that one of its two helicopters searching for the jet's crew in Syria was shot down by rebel fire and one serviceman was killed. The rest of its crew was evacuated and taken back to the air base used by Russia in Syria.