[ View the story "The future of online activism" on Storify] The future of online activism Jeremy Hammond's trial may set important precedents for hacktivism vs. cybercrime.
AJAMStream· Tue, Nov 12 2013 11:08:15 Jeremy Hammond
is the latest of many who have sought to fight for social justice in the digital space. Others include
. On November 15, Hammond could be sentenced to ten years in prison for the 2011
hacking of Stratfor
, a private intelligence firm, and publishing the material he gathered, including emails, passwords, and credit card information.
Below, events in support of Hammond and Barrett Brown, another man accused of involvement in the Stratfor hack:
Speaking now at Barrett Brown & Jeremy Hammond Benefit event, @birgittaj: "Fight with your keyboards!" http://twitter.com/OccupyWallStNYC/status/369619601812107265/photo/1Occupy Wall Street
At the #JeremyHammond press conference http://pic.twitter.com/Eu7LAHWN80OWS People's Puppets
The Stratfor hack used a tactic known as "doxing," or publicizing private information. Below, an FBI memo warning on doxing:
(U//FOUO) FBI Threat to Law Enforcement From “Doxing”http://www.weareanonymous.eu http://twitter.com/anonymous_n1nja/status/148865457401761793/photo/1Anonymous 0110000101
Another tactic used by hacktivists is called DDoS, or distributed denial-of-service. Users choose a site to target and flood it with requests, making the site unavailable for legitimate users.
Below are screenshots of websites temporarily disabled by DDoS attacks:
#Ansaldo http://www.ansaldonucleare.it #TANGO #DOWN ! #DDOS protest for 24h Stop nuclear!l Via @OpGreenRights l #WeAreLegion http://twitter.com/YourAnonCentral/status/398541494270709760/photo/1Anonymous Operations
http://Chase.com, as it appeared during the DDOS yesterday. http://twitter.com/bobmcmillan/status/311917571962187776/photo/1Robert McMillan
Since DDoS attacks don't cause permanant damage to a site or compromise private information, many online believe such actions are harmless. One defense lawyer for hackers
a DDoS attack a "digital sit-in."
ohai media. due to current thingswhichhappen: Repeat after me: DDOS IS NOT HACKING! DDOS IS NOT HACKING! #OpFreeAssange http://twitter.com/HomoCarnula/status/238038577185951744/photo/1HomoCarnula
@AJAMStream DDOSing is, in most cases, essentially the internet equivalent of tearing down posters that someone has put up. Usually benign.LE
Many private intelligence firms advertise their services to block cyberattacks:
Our National #Cybersecurity Awareness Month Tip Of The Day is on DDoS. For info, visit http://www.VerisignInc.com/DDoS. #NCSAM http://twitter.com/VERISIGN/status/387746535066202112/photo/1twitter.com
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), under which Hammond and others have been prosecuted, was enacted in 1986. Since then, the digital space has evolved and many are calling for the CFAA's reform:
Between the CFAA and the DMCA, I think it's reasonable to conclude that the US hates technology.aestetix
10 years in prison is #CFAA overkill. EFF asks court for leniency in sentencing Jeremy Hammond. https://eff.org/r.c7hNEFF
Are you at #defcon? Come to our phone booth in the contest area and dial your rep about Aaron's Law and CFAA reform http://twitter.com/trevortimm/status/363739919312633856/photo/1Trevor Timm
As more political action shifts online, the debate over what constitutes legitimate activism and journalism continues.
@AJAMStream hacktivism=Edward Snowden+Chelsea Manning+Anonymous+Wikileaks+The Guardian+Jeremy Hammond. That is what real hacktivism is.Jonathan Ayala